STUDENT INDUSTRIALWORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME REPORTON MY EXPERIENCE ON SITE/@WORK DURING MY THREE(3) MONTHS TRAINING
AT S.K.P. INTERNATIONAL SERVICES LIMITED, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria.
POPOOLA OPEYEMI SAMSON
MATRIC. NO: 2009/1134
DEPT OF ARCHITECTURE
BELLS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Students Industrial Work Experience scheme is a program designed by the universityto expose students to the practical aspects of his/her course of study. It involves theattachment of a student to an organization in line with his/her respective course of study thatcan provide the training and experience required in the industry, as these experience andtraining cannot be obtained in the lecture rooms but the theoretical knowledge taught inlecture rooms shall be applied by the student in real industrial situations.This training/work experience, is an essential component in the development of the practical and professional skills required of each student by their respective course of studyand also stands as an aid to prospective employment.As a student of architecture, i have been able to obtain
the most relevant and effective practical industrial training and experience in a duration of three months(3 months) having beenexposed to practical on-site situations and activities from S.K.P. international services, a construction company with consultants in Architecture, Engineering and Quantity surveying. The company’s principal areas of operations include building design project management and buildingsupervision.Being
an architectural design and engineering services company with a vision andcommitment to providing bespoke design and construction service using a combination of the mostappropriate technology
, S.K.P. international services limited has undertaken various projects just to mention a few as listed below:
Adamawa Plaza, Abuja
PTF Housing Scheme, Abuja
Pinnacle Plaza, Abuja
Coscharis Centre, Abuja
Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Authority(PPPRA) Head Office,Abuja
I was assigned as an industrial training student by the firm to the on-going PetroleumProducts Pricing Regulatory Authority head office building project site to learn, observe andreport the weekly construction activities, procedures and work progress carried out on the siteand make a weekly presentation to the office on the architectural experience and knowledgeobtained on the project.This report is therefore an illustration of the nature of works and activities carried outon the Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Authority head office building project and the
nature of works done during the course of the industrial programme. It also provides adetailed principle of building construction and some aspects of engineering in reference to building technology and how they are applied practically in building construction.
My deepest appreciation and gratitude goes to God for his gift of life to me and strength to journey through and to Arc. S.K. Popoola, the C.E.O., skp international services limited, for giving me this very rare privilege and opportunity to learn and be trained under him and to the entire staff S.K.P. international services limited for their tutelage, time, patience and support inspite of all the ups and downs experienced during my training .Furthermore, my sincere appreciation also goes to the entire staff of S.K.P. international services limited, for developing in me an awareness of the general workplace, behaviour and interpersonal skills development, and giving me the opportunity to get a feel of the work environment which has exposed me to the architects responsibilities and ethics.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
•About S.K.P. international services limited
•Introduction to site work
•Site safety precautions
•Site layout considerations
•Construction terms and techniques
CHAPTER 1: About S.K.P. international services limited
INTRODUCTION TO SITE WORK
I was introduced by my supervisor to the construction site, the contractor, project manager, and site engineers in charge of the on-going project who further exposed me to proper site work. Site work involves the entire process involved in the construction of a building and onsite the following factors must be considered and applied for effectiveness.
Safety is an important consideration at any construction site, but I was made to understand that on a site with a high rise building, extra safety is of crucial importance and should be everyone's primary concern because construction of buildings at great heights such as the OPIC building in Abeokuta can be a dangerous activity. Safety is based on knowledge, skill, and an attitude of care and concern .Thus safety factors includes all the measures carried out to protect both the worker, consultants, contractors and all persons present on the site at every given time from fatalities and injuries, and as well as minimize or eliminate all possible construction hazards. This safety measures can also be applied to the safety of the building and building materials from damage of any kind.
Safety precaution guide lines for workers and persons present on a construction site.
1. Proper clothing is as essential to safety. Wear clothes that are smart and appropriate for the site work and weather conditions. Loose clothing is dangerous for workers around power tools and equipment.
2. Footwear must be safety boots or work boots that are thick-soled shoes in order to protect the feet from falling objects or from penetration by nails, and should have non-slip soles. Sandals or other types of inappropriate footwear are hazardous on construction site.
3. Protective head gear (helmets or hard hats) must always be worn on a construction site by all persons for protection of the head from falling objects of any kind.
4. Suspension belts are of crucial importance for site workers working at very high levels.
5. All exposed areas or parts of a building must be adequately protected with temporary rail or supports and staircases must be protected with temporary balustrades.
6. All scaffolding that is elevated 10 feet or more must be equipped with a safety railing. All scaffolds must be equipped with a toe board to eliminate the possibility that tools or debris will be kicked or pushed onto people below. A scaffold must be designed to support four times the weight of the workers and the materials resting on it.
7. Inspect all scaffolding each day before using it. Never use damaged or defective equipment and avoid rusted parts since their strength is unknown. When erecting scaffolding, provide adequate sills for the scaffold posts and use base plates. Use adjusting screws, not blocks, when on an uneven grade. Make sure to plumb and level scaffolding and do not force end braces when constructing the scaffolding.
8. Use only properly graded and inspected lumber for planking. Inspect planking daily for splits and knots, and remove defective or damaged planking.
9. Be always aware and alert of your surroundings.
10. A clean work place is a safe work place. This refers to the neatness and good order of the construction site. Keep the site clear of danger as you work – remove nails from waste wood, move trip hazards and obstacles, etc. They interfere with work and can constitute a hazard to both the worker and other persons on the site.
11. Any unsafe conditions or practices that is observed should IMMEDIATELY be reported to the site project manager.
12. Emergency medical care in form of first aid assistance (first aid kit) must be provided on the site and must be easily identifiable and nearby.
SITE LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS
On the construction site, it was observed that certain site layout considerations were observed so that items such as temporary structures, stationary plants, stores, toilets(conveniences) and materials are placed in the most strategic and convenient positions. These considerations are stated below:
Access to and within the site
Temporary access to the site requiring access both through and fro the site. Route to and from the site must be checked in other to select the best suitable for transporting equipment and materials to the site. Circulation on site for deliveries must be carefully considered.
Site security considerations
The primary aim for security is to protect against theft, vandals, and trespassers. Security provisions include: Adequate lighting at night and flood lighting which Lights up the construction site and the building structure.
CONSTRUCTION TERMS AND TECHNIQUES
The Construction techniques and terms described in this report involves the various methods of construction carried out in the course of building construction for both structural and non-structural elements of the building. While on site, certain terms were used during the construction. These terms could be referred to as technical terms or site terms or language being used by the site workers. As an architect, adequate knowledge of these terms must be paid attention to in order communicate effectively with the workers. Below are some site terms and definitions..
This is the process of laying concrete masonry units to form either external walls as in-fills or lock wall which are load-bearing or non- load bearing or internal walls as partitions. These masonry units are commonly hollow sand-crete blocks which are much economical per unit of wall area. The standard sand-crete block wall is explained below;
Sequence of laying of sand-crete block wall:
•A bed of mortar is spread on the footing/floor.
•The first course of blocks for a lead is laid on the mortar. The mortar for the head joint is applied to the end of each block with the trowel before the block is laid.
•The lead is built higher. Mortar is normally applied only to the face shells of the block and not to the webs.
•As each new course is started on the lead, its height is checked with either a folding rule or a story pole marked with the height of each course.
•A line is stretched between the leads on line blocks.
•The course between the leads are laid rapidly by aligning each block with the stretched line.
•The last block to be installed in each course of infill blocks, the closer must be inserted between blocks that have already been laid then the block is lowered carefully into position.
Plastering is the most common treatment for external and internal walls to help withstand weather conditions. Plasters are used to render, run an uneven surface into a smooth level surface. Plaster is a mixture of sand and cement at a ratio of 4:1 or 3:1(i.e. 8/6 head pans to1 bag of cement). Plastering is also used to correct mistakes and to provide a smooth surface area for other finishing types like painting.
Floating is the backing coat that is usually made of plaster such as Plaster of Paris(P.O.P)
that provides a true or smooth surface for the final finishing coat on a wall after plastering has been carried out on a wall surface. Most importantly, floating is carried out on wall surfaces to fill up all uneven areas on a wall surface and may be applied on the internal or external surface of walls, and also on ceilings. On majority of the sites I went to, all the internal walls were floated with P.O.P after cement plastering was done.
A Scaffold is a temporary framework used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes, although it can be made out of other materials. The purpose of a working scaffold is to provide a safe place of work with safe access suitable for the work being done. All scaffolds must be equipped with a toe board to eliminate the possibility that tools or debris will be kicked or pushed onto people below. A scaffold must be designed to support four times the weight of the workers and the materials resting on it.
Erecting of scaffolds
Back on site, scaffolds were erected round the structure as seen in the picture to enable works to be carried out at various parts of the building and at various heights.
Concrete must be given form by casting it in a mould. These moulds are known as ‘’formwork’ or ‘’shuttering’’.
A Formwork is the term given to either temporary or permanent mould into which concrete or similar materials are poured.
Shutters are another type of formwork made of steel metal also known as shutters panels.
They are flat metal panels made of steel which are assembled together to make the complete formwork and are specially used to cast concrete columns in high rise reinforced concrete frame structures. They are usually tight enough to prevent the loss of fine materials. Erection of the shutters are usually orderly, simple and all the units are of sizes that can be easily handled. It gives the column a smooth face.
Tiling in general terms can be defined as the cladding of a surface. We have floor tiling and wall tilling (both external and internal walls). For example, the female hostel porter’s lodge at university of agriculture, abeokuta (UNAAB),the toilet walls were laid with ceramic tiles. The floor was tiled with vitrified ceramic tiles.
Illustrates floor tilling with vitrified tiles.
Tiles come in two forms namely:
•Vitrified tiles: these are tiles with the same properties all through, i.e. when wearing occurs, the subsequent layers have the same texture, density and material. They are mainly used for external walls and floors.
•Ceramic tiles: these tiles are made with clay and laminated surfaces, they are usually used for toilets and kitchen tilling. Surface finish for tiles are either glazed or unglazed and the material used for making the tiles include stones, clay, and plastics, etc.
Curtain walls are glass walls typically designed to span multiple floors and allow the penetration of day light into the building envelope, resist air and water infiltration, and provide an architecturally pleasing façade of a building. They carry no dead-load the building other than its own dead load, but rather transfer the horizontal loads applied to it. These loads are transferred to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building.
CURTAIN WALL FRAMES
Curtain wall frames are made of extruded aluminium frames known as aluminium extrusions. They are factory made and designed in units and assembled unit by unit on site.
FIXING OF CURTAIN WALL FRAMES
When fixing curtain wall frames, the frames are screwed to the floor slab made of mass concrete with an electrical power drill and also screwed to the top which is the soffit of the floor slab.
A parapet wall is a protective wall constructed on the perimeter edge/area of a roof slab to protect rain water accumulation on the gutter /drainage of the roof slab from draining down the sides of a building. It is usually of reinforced concrete and cast-in-situ. On site, a parapet wall was constructed to a height of 1.0m.
Roof gutter is the drainage path created on a flat roof slab to channel accumulated rain water for the roofing sheet into the drainage pipes on the roof slab.
Drainage pipes are pipes installed on the roof slab to drain rain/storm water on roof slab. They are channelled through the roof beams and connected to the exterior columns which are then sent down to the inspection chamber. They are made of PVC plastic pipes and are100mm in diameter width.
Felting of a roof slab involves the protection of the exposed concrete surface of the roof from water penetration and infiltration, and all forms of damp and moist actions by laying a thick damp proof membrane on the roof slab. One of the most common felts applied on roof slab sis the bituminous felt. It is hot –mopped with asphalt to create a strong damp proof membrane.
In the construction of any building, there are two main services that must be provided in the building in order to create a comfortable and habitable internal building environment for the building occupants. These services are divided into two main branches namely:
•Electrical engineering services
•Mechanical engineering services
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES
The involvement of electrical engineering services is to supply electricity, telephone, data outlets and provide lighting and power points in the building. They also determine the best suited for generators. During the 3-months period on site, I was able to learn how all these are applied.
Electrical 1st- fix:
This term is used to describe the fixing of PVC pipes of 13mm diameter called ‘Conduit Pipes’
and circular boxes before casting of the floor slab is done. The circular boxes are outlets for the lighting points while the wires are passed through the conduit pipes.
As illustrated here>>>>>
the conduit pipes have already been laid prior to the floor screeding.
This is a term used to denote a protective casing for wires. There are two common types.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES
Ventilation systems/Air conditioning systems:
Central air conditioning is an air conditioning system which uses ducts to distribute cooled and/or dehumidified air to more than one room, or uses pipes to distribute chilled water to heat exchangers in more than one room, and which is not plugged into a standard electrical outlet. Central air conditioning performs like a regular air conditioner but has several added benefits. When the air handling unit turns on, room air is drawn in from various parts of the building through
Return-air ducts: This air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust and lint are removed. Sophisticated filters may remove microscopic pollutants as well. The filtered air is routed to air supply ductwork that carries it back to rooms. Whenever the air conditioner is running, this cycle repeats continually because the central air conditioning unit is located outside the office spaces, it offers a lower level of indoor noise than a free-standing air conditioning unit.
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
Basically two fire-fighting systems were used during my stay on site;
The wet system consists of reducers and sprinkler heads.
Expansion joints are structural joints in a building that are created to allow for the thermal expansion and contraction of a building that occurs in concrete when loaded. In the construction of fence that I witnessed, the expansion joints were created uniquely for this purpose. The expansion joints were created right from the foundation up to the roof level of the building. They are created to accommodate structural movements.
Concrete is a mixture of coarse and fine aggregates, cement and water which is allowed to harden. Coarse aggregate used on site is normally gravel and Fine aggregate is sand.
Concrete ‘’slump test’’:
On site, before any concrete is cast into the formwork or mould, a slump test is always carried out on it to test for its consistency and quality check to determine the desired degree of workability. Freshly mixed concrete is an unstable mixture of solids and liquids. If it is vibrated excessively, and dropped from a height, it is likely to segregate, which means that the coarse aggregate work sits way to the bottom of the form and the water and cement paste rise to the top. The result is concrete of non-uniform and with unsatisfactory properties.
‘’Curing of concrete’’
Concrete cures by hydration and not by drying. Thus, it is essential that the concrete must be moist until its required strength is achieved. Maximum strength for concrete is attained after 28days(4 weeks) of curing. If it is allowed to dry at any point during this timeframe, the strength of the cured concrete will be reduced and its surface hardness and durability are likely to be adversely affected.
Concrete has no useful tensile strength and is limited in its structural uses. Steel reinforcement bars are used in concrete columns beams, and slabs. Reinforcement bars have various diameter sizes. They come in 12mm,16mm 18mm, 20mm 24mm 30mm and 32mmdiameter sizes.
Casting is the process of pouring concrete mix into a mould or form laid with reinforcement bars to form a solid mass structure.
Casting a concrete wall
•Vertical reinforcing bars are first wired to the dowels that project from the foundation footing and horizontal bars are wired to the vertical bars as seen in the illustration below.
•The formwork is erected. Sheets of plywood form the face of the concrete and are supported by wooden studs. The studs are supported against the pressure of the wet concrete by horizontal supports.
•The concrete is then poured, compacted and cured.
During my training, site meetings were held every two weeks on a Tuesday. The essence of the site meetings is dissipating instructions to the contractors and to assess the progress of the project. The site meeting is chaired by the project architect who gives out all instructions. During the meetings, all the consultants are expected to be present in order to obtain an update of a weekly report on each of their jurisdictions as regards the building project from the contractors. Issues from what material should be used to the ordering of materials and expenses made are discussed in full length and all issues or problems encountered are presented to the architect for instructions. After a few site meetings, my supervisor handed over the task of writing the minutes of the meeting to me. This i did until my last site meeting on the site. During the meeting, everyone is presented with their copy of the minute and is expected to file them afterwards. The site meeting for the building project is expected to be held till the project is completed and handed over to the clients.
In conclusion, as a student of architecture, i have been able to obtain
the most relevant and effective practical industrial training and experience in a duration of three months(3months) having been exposed to practical on-site situations and activities. Furthermore, an awareness of the general workplace has been developed in me and I have acquired important behaviour and interpersonal skills with the opportunity giving me to get a feel of the work environment and exposure as a student to the architects responsibilities and ethics .Finally, I would like to state that the SIWES programme is a very relevant and necessary programme for all students that must be taken advantage of by every student for each student’s professional development prior to graduation.